Below are the 15 countries that exported the highest dollar value worth of raw strawberries during 2019. There are 13 common Malaysian varieties having favourable qualities of colour, texture, odour, taste, high yield, and resistance against various diseases. [20], Durian flowers are large and feathery with copious nectar, and give off a heavy, sour, and buttery odour. [71], The durian is commonly known as the "king of fruits",[5] a label that can be attributed to its formidable look and overpowering odour. [56] The thorny, armoured covering of the fruit discourages smaller animals; larger animals are more likely to transport the seeds far from the parent tree.[57]. [10], A common local belief is that the durian is harmful when eaten with coffee[44] or alcoholic beverages. [38] Due to the increasing popularity of durian in China, the price had risen up to 20 times over in four years, in a market that was worth nearly £400m in 2018. In fact, to eat Durians is a new sensation worth a voyage to the East to experience. In Thailand, durian is often eaten fresh with sweet sticky rice, and blocks of durian paste are sold in the markets, though much of the paste is adulterated with pumpkin. [44] The markets of Turkey are full of the huge, sphere limes all around the year. When ripe, the custard-like flesh inside can be sweet and creamy. But recently Philippine mango production dropped down to only 400,000 million tons yet Philippine accounts for a huge share of dried mango production and is among the top mango producing countries. To increase production, India has dedicated larger tracts of land to papaya cultivation over a number of years. The nectar and pollen of the durian flower that honeybees collect is an important honey source, but the characteristics of the honey are unknown. Click Here to visit Plantations International. [50] Durian flesh contains diverse polyphenols, especially myricetin, and various carotenoids, including a rich content of beta-carotene. In China, there is an increased demand for durian with Thailand as the country’s major source for the fruit. In the same year, the United States imported 2,000 tonnes, mostly frozen, and the European Community imported 500 tonnes. I DO NOT know much about the present durian industry - the supply and demand, the economics, the main players, the market. However, the growth of Malaysia’s durian industry could come with a high ecological price tag. Offered at the best prices, our wide assortment of durians is known for their freshness, unique taste, and distinct odor. The Philippines was the third largest producer globally with 71.5 million KG. [34] Notable varieties are Sukun durian (Central Java), sitokong (Betawi), sijapang (Betawi), Simas (Bogor), Sunan (Jepara), si dodol, and si hijau (South Kalimantan)[34] and Petruk (Jepara,[35] Central Java).[34]. In … [77] Nevertheless, signs warning people not to linger under durian trees are found in Indonesia. "[47] Despite having tried many foods that are arguably more eccentric, Andrew Zimmern, host of Bizarre Foods, was unable to finish a durian upon sampling it, due to his intolerance of its strong taste. Durian consumption is centred on the Asian market, but the Asian diaspora has resulted in the fruit being sold worldwide. [80][81], In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves and roots used to be prescribed as an antipyretic. Top Papaya Producing Countries India. Wearing a hardhat is recommended when collecting the fruit. The principal mango producing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Orissa, although many other Indian states also cultivate mangoes. India. As of 2016 the country produced more than 20,000 tonnes of honey from 684,046 registered hives. "[47] He cites another writer: "To those not used to it, it seems at first to smell like rotten onions, but immediately after they have tasted it they prefer it to all other food. [16][17], A draft genome analysis of durian indicates it has about 46,000 coding and non-coding genes, among which a class called methionine gamma lyases – which regulate the odour of organosulfur compounds – may be primarily responsible for the distinct durian odour. "[66] The Portuguese physician Garcia de Orta described durians in Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India published in 1563. Pregnant women or people with high blood pressure are traditionally advised not to consume durian. The authors of these studies hypothesise that monothecate anthers have most likely evolved convergently in Durioneae and in the Malvatheca clade (comprising Malvaceae s.l. Sources include reporting from FAS’s worldwide offices, official statistics of foreign governments, and analysis of economic data and satellite imagery. Its success in rice production is attributed to use of hybrid rice that produces higher yields when compared to traditional crops. Secondly, other origin countries durian quality and production capabilities is still way behind before these countries are able to meet the Chinese market strict and high demand of quality durian.” subfamilies Malvoideae and Bombacoideae). [9][50] Durians from different species or clones can have significantly different aromas; for example, red durian (D. dulcis) has a deep caramel flavour with a turpentine odour while red-fleshed durian (D. graveolens) emits a fragrance of roasted almonds. There are 30 recognised Durio species, at least nine of which produce edible fruit, with over 300 named varieties in Thailand and 100 in Malaysia, as of 1987. A naturally spineless variety of durian growing wild in Davao, Philippines, was discovered in the 1960s; fruits borne from these seeds also lacked spines. [30], Indonesia has more than 103 varieties of durian. The flesh can be consumed at various stages of ripeness, and it is used to flavour a wide variety of savoury and sweet desserts in Southeast Asian cuisines. Malaysia’s Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry, Sim Tze Tzin said, “Malaysia continues to facilitate the export and promotion of unique local products to the global market. [3][10] In My Tropic Isle, Australian author and naturalist Edmund James Banfield tells how, in the early 20th century, a friend in Singapore sent him a durian seed, which he planted and cared for on his tropical island off the north coast of Queensland. Here, you can get the best of durians from the top durian exporter. [69], In Southeast Asia, the durian has been cultivated for centuries at the village level, probably since the late 18th century, and commercially since the mid-20th century. [19] During the early stages of its taxonomical study, there was some confusion between durian and the soursop (Annona muricata), for both of these species had thorny green fruit. The durian is a legacy fruit. In this state, the flesh becomes richly creamy, slightly alcoholic,[44] the aroma pronounced and the flavour highly complex. Country. The first seedlings were sent from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, to Auguste Saint-Arroman of Dominica in 1884. The fruit can grow as large as 30 centimetres (12 inches) long and 15 cm (6 in) in diameter, and it typically weighs 1 to 3 kilograms (2 to 7 pounds). [41] China is the major importer, purchasing 65,000 tonnes in 1999, followed by Singapore with 40,000 tonnes and Taiwan with 5,000 tonnes. In-season durians can be found in mainstream Japanese supermarkets, while in the West they are sold mainly by Asian markets. [10] Among the thirty known species of Durio, nine of them have been identified as producing edible fruits: D. zibethinus, D. dulcis, D. grandiflorus, D. graveolens, D. kutejensis, Durio lowianus, D. macrantha, D. oxleyanus and D. Durian. The durian is cultivated in tropical regions, and stops growing when mean daily temperatures drop below 22 °C (72 °F). Durian trees have one or two flowering and fruiting periods per year, although the timing varies depending on the species, cultivars, and localities. However, the nineteenth-century British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described its flesh as "a rich custard highly flavoured with almonds". With 5 farm as our distributors, Tip Top Durian is exporting tonnes of durian to targeted country. D. zibethinus is not grown in Brunei because consumers there prefer other species such as D. graveolens, D. kutejensis, and D. oxleyanus. Mon Thong is the most commercially sought after, for its thick, full-bodied creamy and mild sweet-tasting flesh with relatively moderate smell emitted and smaller seeds, while Chanee is the best in terms of its resistance to infection by Phytophthora palmivora. In 2016, Thailand produced 600 million KG of Durian fruit, while Malaysia produced approximately 400 million KG. [62] Dried durian flesh can be made into kripik durian (durian chips). [28] On 22 May 2012, two other cultivars from Thailand that also lack the usual odour, Long Laplae and Lin Laplae, were presented to the public by Yothin Samutkhiri, governor of Uttaradit Province from where these cultivars were developed locally, while he announced the dates for the annual durian fair of Laplae District, and the name given to each cultivar. [3] The petals of durian flowers are eaten in the North Sumatra province of Indonesia and Sarawak of Malaysia, while in the Moluccas islands the husk of the durian fruit is used as fuel to smoke fish. However, the biochemical pathway by which the plant produces ethanethiol remained unclear such as the enzyme that releases ethanethiol. First used around 1580, the name "durian" is derived from the Malay language word dûrî (meaning 'thorn'),[6] a reference to the numerous prickly thorns The fruit’s rising prices and high demand has made it the key focus of exports for the Malaysian government. Although not among the ten largest economies, South Korea’s industrial output continues to grow and ranks better some top economies. [65] Translated from the Latin in which Poggio Bracciolini recorded de Conti's travels: "They [people of Sumatra] have a green fruit which they call durian, as big as a watermelon. However, in more recent circumscriptions of Durioneae, the tribe into which Durio and its sister taxa fall, fleshy arils and spiny fruits are derived within the clade. On the receiving end, China, Hong Kong and Singapore are the main export destination markets for durian. In 1741, Herbarium Amboinense by the German botanist Georg Eberhard Rumphius was published, providing the most detailed and accurate account of durians for over a century. Over thirty clones of D. zibethinus and six other Durio species have been subsequently introduced into Australia. Most cultivars have a common name and a code number starting with "D". The unusual flavour and odour of the fruit have prompted many people to express diverse and passionate views ranging from deep appreciation to intense disgust. [22], Some scientists have hypothesised that the development of monothecate anthers and larger flowers (compared to those of the remaining genera in Durioneae) in the clade consisting of Durio, Boschia, and Cullenia was in conjunction with a transition from beetle pollination to vertebrate pollination. List of largest producing countries of agricultural commodities Jump to navigation Jump to ... Production of some products is highly concentrated in a few countriesnce, China, the leading producer of wheat and ramie in 2013, produces 6% of the world's ramie fiber but only 17% of the world's wheat. [9], Durio sensu lato has 30 recognised species. The durian fruit can hang from any branch, and matures roughly three months after pollination. [63], Young leaves and shoots of the durian are occasionally cooked as greens. [83] The traditional method to counteract this is to pour water into the empty shell of the fruit after the pulp has been consumed and drink it. The General Administration of Customs of the People’s Republic of China (GACC) has said that the imported fruits must comply with specific guidelines and standards. These species are commonly distributed in Brunei, and together with other species like D. testudinarius and D. dulcis constitute a genetically diverse crop source.[36]. “We are popular for Musang King durian that we export to China. Supported by the government, durian is considered a new gold commodity and a source of income for Malaysia. Top Largest Watermelons Producer Countries Hello Dear Friend I am from rural area please support my channel Inside there are five things like elongated oranges, and resembling thick butter, with a combination of flavours. [10] Durian consumers express preferences for specific cultivars, which fetch higher prices in the market.[23]. China ranked first in exports with an export value of about 2.3 trillion US dollars. One of the largest producing honey countries in the world is New Zealand. This is primarily because durian is mostly found and consumed only in South East Asia with very few exceptions of durians being sold internationally. It can be smelled from yards away. The new method of transporting the fruit was a collaborative effort by the Malaysian and Chinese government agencies to facilitate the export of the coveted fruit. His theory was that endozoochory (the enticement of animals to transport seeds in their stomach) arose before any other method of seed dispersal, and that primitive ancestors of Durio species were the earliest practitioners of that dispersal method, in particular red durian (D. dulcis) exemplifying the primitive fruit of flowering plants. In Sabah, red durian is fried with onions and chilli and served as a side dish. Uncooked durian seeds are potentially toxic due to cyclopropene fatty acids and should not be ingested. Local media in Malaysia recently reported that rainforest in Pahang is being cleared to plant Musang King durians, which are in high demand. The top papaya producing country in the world is India. Novelist Anthony Burgess writes that eating durian is "like eating sweet raspberry blancmange in the lavatory". [At present] the time of the coronavirus outbreak is not the Musang King season, so for now it has not caused any effect [on export to China],"​ Fede… The country mainly farms its rice under irrigated farms that account for more than 90% of the total country’s produce. by beastdog75 Plays Quiz not verified by Sporcle Rate 5 stars ... Popular Quizzes Today. Durian Harvests is specialised in the Musang King Durian variety, one of the world’s most expensive and in demand Durian varieties. The most recent molecular evidence (on which the most recent, well-supported circumscription of Durioneae is based) therefore refutes Corner's Durian Theory. Due to high demand and limited supply, the price of Musang King durians in China is significantly higher than elsewhere. Different durian varieties from Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia vary in their carbohydrate content by 16-29%, fat content by 2-5%, protein content by 2-4%, dietary fibre content by 1-4%, and caloric value by 84-185 kcal per 100 grams. [11][12] Durio s.s. and Boschia have indistinguishable vegetative characteristics and many shared floral characteristics. Thailand and Malaysia are the top global producers and exporters of durian, with an annual production of 600,000 and 300,000 metric tonnes, respectively. Although the durian is not native to Thailand, Thailand is ranked the world's number one exporter of durian, producing around 700,000 tonnes of durian per year, 400,000 tonnes of which are exported to mainland China and Hong Kong. It produces no nausea or other bad effect, and the more you eat of it the less you feel inclined to stop. Named in some regions as the "king of fruits",[5] the durian is distinctive for its large size, strong odour, and thorn-covered rind. South Korea. One Musang King durian can reach an astounding US$122 per kilogram. In peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, the season for durians is typically from June to August, coinciding with that of the mangosteen. [50] Sugar content, primarily sucrose, has a range of 8-20% among different durian varieties. Annually, 90-95 percent of durians imported into China come from Thailand. Thailand and Malaysia are the top global producers and exporters of durian, with an annual production of 600,000 and 300,000 metric tonnes, respectively. This single province is responsible for half of the durian production of Thailand. Malaysia negotiated a deal with China to export the whole fruit frozen for the first time to China starting in 2019, previously only Thailand was permitted to export the whole fruit to China. Durian Producing Countries Quiz Stats. [50], The origin of the durian is thought to be in the region of Borneo and Sumatra, with wild trees in the Malay peninsula, and orchards commonly cultivated in a wide region from India to New Guinea. Each cultivar has a distinct taste and odour. [67], D. zibethinus was introduced into Ceylon by the Portuguese in the 16th century and was reintroduced many times later. [72] In its native Southeast Asia, the durian is an everyday food and portrayed in the local media in accordance with the cultural perception it has in the region. [38] Chantaburi in Thailand holds the World Durian Festival in early May each year. For example, in Singapore the strong demand for high quality cultivars such as the D24 (Sultan), and Musang King (Mao Shan Wang) has resulted in typical retail prices of between S$8 to S$15 (US$5 to US$10) per kilogram of whole fruit in 2007. The leaf juice is applied on the head of a fever patient. The fruit can grow up to 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) in diameter, and typically weighs one to three kilograms (2 to 7 lb). [12], Over the centuries, numerous durian cultivars, propagated by vegetative clones, have arisen in Southeast Asia. The persistence of its odour, which may linger for several days, led certain hotels and public transportation services in Southeast Asia to ban the fruit. (Rahmad Suryadi / AFP Photo), Digital Media Nusantara @ 2020 All Rights Reserved, Alibaba Group, the Chinese conglomerate specialising in e-commerce and retail, durian has caused a new wave of deforestation. [32][33] The fruit is medium-sized with oval shape, brownish green skin having short thorns. There are 30 recognised Durio species, at least nine of which produce edible fruit, with over 300 named varieties in Thailand and 100 in Malaysia, as of 1987. Thailand and Malaysia are the two largest producers of Durian fruit globally, together believed to account for up to 90% of global production. Tempoyak can be eaten either cooked or uncooked, is normally eaten with rice, and can also be used for making curry. Monthly report on crop acreage, yield and production in major countries worldwide. [10], In 2019, researchers from the Technical University of Munich identified ethanethiol and its derivatives as a reason for its stinky smell. In addition various sources give conflicting data which further confuses the issue. In previous years, limited availability and strong demand have pushed up the price for Musang King durians and the growing demand by China could raise prices even higher. [51], The fruit's strong smell led to its ban from the subway in Singapore; it is not used in many hotels because of its pungency. On the receiving end, China, Hong Kong and Singapore are the main export destination markets for durian. There is disagreement over whether this name, bestowed by Linnaeus, refers to civets being so fond of the durian that the fruit was used as bait to entrap them, or to the durian smelling like the civet. Nothing gets your attention more than a whiff of the King of Fruits, whose pungent aroma can offend even an adult. [58] However, the ideal stage of ripeness to be enjoyed varies from region to region in Southeast Asia and by species. Annual production of rice in … Durian was introduced into Australia in the early 1960s and clonal material was first introduced in 1975. Durian fruit is used to flavour a wide variety of sweet edibles such as traditional Malay candy, ice kacang, dodol, lempuk,[60] rose biscuits, ice cream, milkshakes, mooncakes, Yule logs, and cappuccino. Widely known and revered in southeast Asia as the "king of fruits", the durian is distinctive for its large size, unique odor, and formidable thorn-covered husk. [21] According to research conducted in Malaysia in the 1970s, durians were pollinated almost exclusively by cave fruit bats (Eonycteris spelaea);[10] however, a 1996 study indicated two species, D. grandiflorus and D. oblongus, were pollinated by spiderhunters (Nectariniidae) and another species, D. kutejensis, was pollinated by giant honey bees and birds as well as bats. In 2016 the country’s industrial production produced about $672 billion. [31] Another common variety is "Udang merah", or red shrimp, found in the states of Pahang and Johor. [78] Strong nylon or woven rope netting is often strung between durian trees in orchards, serving a threefold purpose: the nets aid in the collection of the mature fruits, deter ground-level scavengers, and prevent the durians from falling onto people. [75][76] A saying in Indonesian, ketiban durian runtuh, which translates to "getting hit by a durian", is the equivalent of the English phrase "windfall gain". [3] Among the varieties of D. zibethinus, Thai varieties are sweeter in flavour and less odorous than Malay ones. But for those that love durian, LOVE durian. The Musang King durian – also known as D197 or Mao Shan Wang – is the most sought-after durian in Malaysia. [5] Ikan brengkes tempoyak is fish cooked in a durian-based sauce, traditional in Sumatra. In Vietnam, the cultivar, Musang King, is a common variety preferred by consumers. The various preferences regarding ripeness among consumers make it hard to issue general statements about choosing a "good" durian. The Kadayawan Festival is an annual celebration featuring the durian in Davao City. Adopting the strictest traceability and inspection measures is necessary to ensure fruits meet the highest quality standards, and only farms that meet certain criteria will get the export approval to China, of which currently there are seven companies. [10], Prices of durians are relatively high, compared with other fruits. [10] Durio sensu stricto comprises 24 of these species. [86], The increased demand for durians in China has prompted a shift in Malaysia from small-scale durian orchards to large-scale industrial operations, with forests being cleared to make way for large durian plantations. In 2015, Indonesia produced 996,540 tons of durian, mostly in Java and Sumatra. Spain: US$678 million (24.6% of exported fresh strawberries) Mexico: $580.1 million (21%) United States: $451.2 million (16.4%) Netherlands: $271 million (9.8%) Belgium: $185.6 million (6.7%) [61] Red-fleshed durian is traditionally added to sayur, an Indonesian soup made from freshwater fish. Several medical investigations on the validity of this belief have been conducted with varying conclusions,[10] though a study by the University of Tsukuba finds the fruit's high sulphur content inhibits the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase, causing a 70 percent reduction of the ability to clear toxins from the body. Durian tourism in Malaysia has attracted many durian lovers to come and eat the fruit in plantations while also learning about the cultivation process at the same time. D. zibethinus is the only species commercially cultivated on a large scale and available outside of its native region. Being a fruit much loved by a variety of wild beasts, the durian sometimes signifies the long-forgotten animalistic aspect of humans, as in the legend of Orang Mawas, the Malaysian version of Bigfoot, and Orang Pendek, its Sumatran version, both of which have been claimed to feast on durians. Anagram Word Building VIII 538; Oscar Winner AND IMDb Top 250 469; Bordering 'C' Countries on a Map 364; Find the US States - No Outlines Minefield 357; Multi-Category Threesomes II 192; More Quizzes; hide this ad . [19] The centre of ecological diversity for durians is the island of Borneo, where the fruits of the edible species of Durio including D. zibethinus, D. dulcis, D. graveolens, D. kutejensis, D. oxleyanus, and D. testudinarius are sold in local markets. Top X Lemon And Lime Producing Countries in the World Hello Dear Friend I am from rural area please support my channel #dataisnice Exports from honey in year 2015/2016 have earned the country more $315 million and the number is continuing to rise. ^ Wallace makes an almost identical comment in his 1866 publication The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utang and the bird of paradise. In Malaya, seedlings will bloom in 7 years; grafted trees in 4 years or earlier. [43] The increasing popularity of the fruit also saw the price of the Malaysian variety Musang King rise considerably; durian farmers would see the prices they get increasing from two ringgit per kilogram to 60 ringgit per kilo by 2018, which made it a far more lucrative than palm oil or rubber, leading to an increase in durian plantation. [3][4] Durio zibethinus is the only species available in the international market: other species are sold in their local regions. According to the Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region (FFTC-AP), durian prices in Malaysia have increased by 200 percent since 2014. Since this species is open-pollinated, it shows considerable diversity in fruit colour and odour, size of flesh and seed, and tree phenology. figures are not available in all producing countries so exact production estimates are difficult to calculate. Previously, only pulp, paste and processed products were allowed to enter China due to quarantine restrictions. Fact. [3] Four hundred years ago, it was traded across present-day Myanmar, and was actively cultivated especially in Thailand and South Vietnam. [55], One of the names Thailand contributed to the list of storm names for Western North Pacific tropical cyclones was 'Durian',[79] which was retired after the second storm of this name in 2006. [50][53] Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate had the highest content among esters in a study of several varieties. [24] Since the 1920s, there have been more than 100 registered cultivars in Malaysia,[25] and by 1992 there were up to 193;[26] many superior cultivars have been identified through competitions held at the annual Malaysian Agriculture, Horticulture, and Agrotourism Show. Durian trees are large, growing to 25–50 metres (80–165 feet) in height depending on the species. For some people in northern Thailand, the preference is for the fruit to be soft and aromatic. In translations of Linschoten's writings, the fruit is spelled as duryoen. The Antya and Mersin provinces of Turkey produce maximum citrus fruits along with a huge production of lemons. [42], The durian is a seasonal fruit, unlike some other non-seasonal tropical fruits such as the papaya which are available throughout the year. There are now some plantings in the Visayas and Luzon. [29], Popular cultivars in Malaysia and Singapore (Singapore imports most of its durians from Malaysia, hence the varieties are similar although there may be slight variation in the names) include "D24", which is a popular variety known for its bittersweet taste; "XO", which has a pale colour, thick flesh with a tinge of alcoholic fermentation; "Chook Kiok" (Cantonese meaning: bamboo leg) which has a distinctive yellowish core in the inner stem; and "Musang King" ('musang' is the Malay word for palm civet) which is usually the priciest of all cultivars. [3][44][45], This strong odour can be detected half a mile away by animals, thus luring them. [3] The most complete description of the medicinal use of the durian as remedies for fevers is a Malay prescription, collected by Burkill and Haniff in 1930. Below are more details on the top 10 countries with the largest gold production in 2019, beginning with the top producer and top consumer of bullion, China. 1, a cultivar without the characteristic odour. The durian symbolised the subjective nature of ugliness and beauty in Hong Kong director Fruit Chan's 2000 film Durian Durian (榴槤飄飄, lau lin piu piu), and was a nickname for the reckless but lovable protagonist of the eponymous Singaporean TV comedy Durian King played by Adrian Pang.