[70] The resemblance goes as far as B-2 and YB-49 having the same wingspan. ", "Air Force Global Strike Command officials assume B-52, B-2 mission. [52], On 29 December 2008, Air Force officials awarded a US$468 million contract to Northrop Grumman to modernize the B-2 fleet's radars. [36] An August 1995 GAO report disclosed that the B-2 had trouble operating in heavy rain, as this rain could damage the aircraft's stealth coating, causing procurement delays until an adequate protective coating could be found. I did a search (which brought up a lot of topics) but I don't think this has been posted here before. B 52 Jet Bomber. More people have been to space than have flown in a B-2 stealth bomber. [85] The arrays of the upgraded radar features were entirely replaced to make the AN/APQ-181 into an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar. B2 Deployment: Stealth bombers being sent to Gulf The B2 Bomber Wing began practising on Tuesday for the deployment to the British Indian Ocean island of Diego Garcia and an airbase at Fairford in England, said a commander of the bomb wing. However, in 1995, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), and its Director of National Security Analysis, found that additional B-2s would reduce the cost of expended munitions by less than US$2 billion in 1995 dollars during the first two weeks of a conflict, in which the Air Force predicted bombers would make their greatest contribution; a small fraction of the US$26.8 billion (in 1995 dollars) life cycle cost that the CBO projected for an additional 20 B-2s.[48]. MissionThe B-2 Spirit is a multi-role bomber capable of delivering both conventional and nuclear munitions. Dawson, T.W.G., G.F. [the integrator, Northrop Grumman (newspaper), Volume 8, No. [65][107] The flying wing design most closely resembles a so-called infinite flat plate (as vertical control surfaces dramatically increase RCS), the perfect stealth shape, as it would lack angles to reflect back radar waves (initially, the shape of the Northrop ATB concept was flatter; it gradually increased in volume according to specific military requirements). The B-2 Combined Test Force, Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards Air Force Base, California, is responsible for flight testing the engineering, manufacturing and development aircraft on the B-2. [101] Four pairs of control surfaces are located along the wing's trailing edge; while most surfaces are used throughout the aircraft's flight envelope, the inner elevons are normally only in use at slow speeds, such as landing. ", B-2 Stealth Bomber article on How It Works Daily, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Northrop_Grumman_B-2_Spirit&oldid=992112621, High-altitude and long endurance aircraft, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2012, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from September 2013, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A U.S. Air Force B-2 Spirit flying over the Pacific Ocean in May 2006. [61], In 2013, the USAF contracted for the Defensive Management System Modernization program to replace the antenna system and other electronics to increase the B-2's frequency awareness. [10], Plans were well advanced by the summer of 1975, when DARPA started the Experimental Survivability Testbed (XST) project. ", "B-2s return to flight after safety pause. Staff working on the B-2 in most, if not all, capacities have to achieve a level of special-access clearance, and undergo extensive background checks carried out by a special branch of the Air Force. Beneath the main instrument panel on the pilot's side is the Pilot's Switch Panel. The aircraft involved was AV-11 Spirit of Washington. During the 1980 presidential election campaign in 1979, Ronald Reagan repeatedly stated that Carter was weak on defense, and used the B-1 as a prime example. The systems and processes that you have to understand to operate the jet are enormous. Event Horizon. During the late 1980s and 1990s, Congress slashed plans to purchase 132 bombers to 21. A number of upgrade packages have been applied to the B-2. Lockheed had experience in this field due to developing the Lockheed A-12 and SR-71, which included a number of stealthy features, notably its canted vertical stabilizers, the use of composite materials in key locations, and the overall surface finish in radar-absorbing paint. B2 (New York City bus) serving Brooklyn B2, the IATA airline designator code for Belavia Belarusian Airlines; B2, East coast district of Bray, Co.Wicklow, Ireland; B2 (İstanbul) - a commuter line in İstanbul, also known as the Sirkeci-Halkalı line. [104] The B-2 is vulnerable to visual interception at ranges of 20 nmi (23 mi; 37 km) or less. [81][82], It was decided, in light of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, to equip the B-2 for conventional precision attacks as well as for the strategic role of nuclear-strike. Lockheed received the sole award for the second test round in April 1976 leading to the Have Blue program and eventually the F-117 stealth attack aircraft. Oh Yes! "Integrated review of stealth technology and its role in airpower". 4.6 out of 5 stars 7. [126] The use of JDAMs and precision-guided munitions effectively replaced the controversial tactic of carpet-bombing, which had been harshly criticized due to it causing indiscriminate civilian casualties in prior conflicts, such as the 1991 Gulf War. [121] B2SS hangars are known to have been deployed to Naval Support Facility Diego Garcia and RAF Fairford. [32], In 1995, Northrop made a proposal to the USAF to build 20 additional aircraft with a flyaway cost of $566 million each. [75] For comparison, the B-1B has a crew of four and the B-52 has a crew of five. "The B-2's Stealthy Skins Need Tender, Lengthy Care. [81][117] At the engine intake, cold air from the boundary layer below the main inlet enters the fuselage (boundary layer suction, first tested on the Northrop X-21) and is mixed with hot exhaust air just before the nozzles (similar to the Ryan AQM-91 Firefly). [98] The flight computer receives information on external conditions such as the aircraft's current air speed and angle of attack via pitot-static sensing plates, as opposed to traditional pitot tubes which would impair the aircraft's stealth capabilities. [7], By the mid-1970s, military aircraft designers had learned of a new method to avoid missiles and interceptors, known today as "stealth". In general the missions these aircraft fly are insanely long. [99] The flight actuation system incorporates both hydraulic and electrical servoactuated components, and it was designed with a high level of redundancy and fault-diagnostic capabilities. [39][40], In its consideration of the fiscal year 1990 defense budget, the House Armed Services Committee trimmed $800 million from the B-2 research and development budget, while at the same time staving off a motion to end the project. The B2 – Bomber A Closer Look at the B2 Configuration David Cross, Joel Faber, and Raul Telles AOE 4124 Ages: 12 years and up . [25] Northrop (now Northrop Grumman) was the B-2's prime contractor; major subcontractors included Boeing, Hughes Aircraft (now Raytheon), GE, and Vought Aircraft.[7]. This website uses cookies. Three B-2s dropped 40 bombs on a Libyan airfield in support of the UN no-fly zone. "US to add one B-2 plane to 20 plane fleet. [12], By 1976, these programs had progressed to a position in which a long-range strategic stealth bomber appeared viable. [155] The exhibit features Spirit of Ohio's nose wheel door, with its Fire and Ice artwork, which was painted and signed by the technicians who performed the temperature testing. COCKPIT Here are a couple overall pictures to get us oriented.We are going to treat the Instrument Panels separately, so we'll just touch on them here. Download the free app from the Apple Store Download the free app from the Google Play Store (Photos derived from those taken by Lyle Jansma, AeroCapture Images, for the Cockpit360 app.) [47], Some B-2 advocates argued that procuring twenty additional aircraft would save money because B-2s would be able to deeply penetrate anti-aircraft defenses and use low-cost, short-range attack weapons rather than expensive standoff weapons. [110], RCS reduction as a result of shape had already been observed on the Royal Air Force's Avro Vulcan strategic bomber,[111] and the USAF's F-117 Nighthawk. ", "US had planned air strike to level Osama's Abbottabad hideout: Americas, News - India Today", US flies stealth bombers over South Korea, U.S. flies B-2 stealth bombers to S. Korea in "extended deterrence mission" aimed at North, "B-2 bombers kill nearly 100 ISIS terrorists in Libya", "Air Force: Sensor moisture caused 1st B-2 crash. A dramatic leap forward in technology, the bomber represents a major milestone in the U.S. bomber modernization program. [43] In 1990, the Department of Defense accused Northrop of using faulty components in the flight control system; it was also found that redesign work was required to reduce the risk of damage to engine fan blades by bird ingestion. For ten years, from 1979 to 1989, the development of the B-2 was kept secret. The B-2 Spirit long-range bomber, distinctive for its unusual ‘flying wing’ hull, has been operational since 1997. [95] The avionics are controlled by 13 EMP-resistant MIL-STD-1750A computers, which are interconnected through 26 MIL-STD-1553B-busses; other system elements are connected via optical fiber. However, Aviation Week editors found that there were no airspace restrictions above the presentation area and took aerial photographs of the aircraft's then-secret rear section[27] with suppressed engine exhausts. In 2008, a B-2 was destroyed in a crash shortly after takeoff, though the crew ejected safely. He spoke about his experience with Defense News, an outlet to which he has been contributing. B-2 Spirit stealth bomber burnt down in 2010 brought back to operative status New details about the epic B-52 mission to rescue a Cessna in Alaska … [59] In 2012, Air Force Chief of Staff General Norton Schwartz stated the B-2's 1980s-era stealth technologies would make it less survivable in future contested airspaces, so the USAF is to proceed with the Next-Generation Bomber despite overall budget cuts. Download the free app from the Apple Store Download the free app from the Google Play Store [26] Cavanaugh was eventually sentenced to life in prison and released on parole in 2001. [152][153] At the time of the accident the USAF had no training to deal with tailpipe fires on the B-2s.[154]. [64], Although the Air Force previously planned to operate the B-2 to 2058, their FY 2019 budget moved up its retirement to "no later than 2032". The B-2 is the only acknowledged aircraft that can carry large air-to-surface standoff weapons in a stealth configuration. It was a very difficult to get it right. [155] The restored test aircraft is on display in the museum's "Cold War Gallery". The main area of improvement would be replacement of outdated avionics and equipment. [130], The B-2's combat use preceded a U.S. Air Force declaration of "full operational capability" in December 2003. The evaluation also noted that the Defensive Avionics suite had shortcomings with "pop-up threats". The B-2's clean, low-drag flying wing configuration not only provides exceptional range but is also beneficial to reducing its radar profile. However with refuel, that range can be extended nearly indefinitely. [55] In 2010, it was made public that the Air Force Research Laboratory had developed a new material to be used on the part of the wing trailing edge subject to engine exhaust, replacing existing material that quickly degraded. First layout test I did of the B2 about 15 years ago. ", "Engineer jailed for selling US stealth bomber technology to China. In February 2010, another serious incident involving a B-2 occurred at Andersen Air Force Base. [54] In July 2009, it was reported that the B-2 had successfully passed a major USAF audit. [14] An estimated US$23 billion was secretly spent for research and development on the B-2 by 1989. [65] The B-2 is a flying wing aircraft, meaning that it has no fuselage or tail. (Autodesk .max format) Our 3DS Max model library is constantly updated. Opposite: The B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber soars into the blue. [112] The B-2 is composed of many curved and rounded surfaces across its exposed airframe to deflect radar beams. Atop the glare shield in the center is a Radio (or RADAR) Altimeter. Other sorties in Iraq have launched from Whiteman AFB. Opposition in committee and in Congress was mostly broad and bipartisan, with Congressmen Ron Dellums (D-CA), John Kasich (R-OH), and John G. Rowland (R-CT) authorizing the motion to end the project—as well as others in the Senate, including Jim Exon (D-NE) and John McCain (R-AZ) also opposing the project. [80][81] The B-2 is capable of carrying 40,000 lb (18,000 kg) of ordnance. In response, on 22 August 1980 the Carter administration publicly disclosed that the United States Department of Defense was working to develop stealth aircraft, including a bomber. [79] There are two internal bomb bays in which munitions are stored either on a rotary launcher or two bomb-racks; the carriage of the weapons loadouts internally results in less radar visibility than external mounting of munitions. The aircraft was destroyed, a hull loss valued at US$1.4 billion. ", "An Extraordinarily Expensive Way to Fight ISIS", "Northrop Grumman and USAF Verify Proper Fit of 30,000 lb Penetrator Weapon on B-2 Bomber. ", "B-2 Fire at AAFB Back in February of 2010 Was 'Horrific,' Not 'Minor'. [7] The B-2 is highly automated, and one crew member can sleep in a camp bed, use a toilet, or prepare a hot meal while the other monitors the aircraft, unlike most two-seat aircraft. Senator, representing Massachusetts. [1][4] The bomber can deploy both conventional and thermonuclear weapons, such as up to eighty 500-pound class (230 kg) Mk 82 JDAM Global Positioning System-guided bombs, or sixteen 2,400-pound (1,100 kg) B83 nuclear bombs. [123] The B-2 reached initial operational capability (IOC) on 1 January 1997. The B-2 Systems Engineering Case Study describes the application of systems engineering during the concept exploration, design, and development of the USAF B-2 Spirit stealth bomber. [34][35] Maintenance costs are about $3.4 million a month for each aircraft. [69], The B-2 is assembled with unusually tight engineering tolerances to avoid leaks as they could increase its radar signature. No. AMP 144-002 - 1/144 - В-2 Spirit Northrop Grumman Stealth Bomber Plastic Model. The American heavy bomber doctrine that evolved through the 1930s centered on daylight precision bombing, though in operations “precision” would be a relative term, with Eighth Air Force heavy bombers dropping 50 percent of their bombs more than 1,500 feet from their targets. The highly secretive US strategic bomber, the B-2 Spirit, has become a bit less of a mystery after the US military allowed footage to be recorded from inside its cabin for a new multimedia project. GAO/NSIAD-95-164. Kitchen and G.B. [16] After the evaluations of the companies' proposals, the ATB competition was narrowed to the Northrop/Boeing and Lockheed/Rockwell teams with each receiving a study contract for further work. President Carter became aware of these developments during 1977, and it appears to have been one of the major reasons the B-1 was canceled. The secrecy extended so far that access to nearly all information on the program by both Government Accountability Office (GAO) and virtually all members of Congress itself was severely limited until the mid-1980s. Halcyon. [155] The test article passed all structural testing requirements before the airframe failed. [6], The B-2 Spirit was developed to take over the USAF's vital penetration missions, able to travel deep into enemy territory to deploy ordnance which could include nuclear weapons. [15] Both teams used flying wing designs. Rao, G.A. The stealthy coating is made up of more than 250 materials. [60] In 2012 projections, it was estimated that the Next-Generation Bomber would have an overall cost of $55 billion. "Defense worker loses job over his ties to India". It shows an in-air refueling of a B-2 stealth bomber as viewed both from outside and inside the aircraft’s second pilot seat. Mastercraft Collection Boeing B-2 Spirit United States Air Force Stealth Bomber Model Scale:1/150. your own Pins on Pinterest ", "Questions about whether the US needs another $55 billion worth of bombers. Although the bombers accounted 50 sorties out of a total of 34,000 NATO sorties, they dropped 11 percent of all bombs. The aircraft is stealthy, except briefly when the bomb bay opens. New Listing Diecast Metal War Plane B2 STEALTH BOMBER NORTHROP 1/280 Model Painted Military. Uploaded: July 4th, 2013. ", "Why Can't the Air Force Build an Affordable Plane? On 23 February 2008, B-2 "AV-12" Spirit of Kansas crashed on the runway shortly after takeoff from Andersen Air Force Base in Guam. The mission, part of the annual South Korean–United States military exercises, was the first time that B-2s overflew the Korean peninsula. Development started under the "Advanced Technology Bomber" (ATB) project during the Carter administration; its expected performance was one of the President's reasons for the cancellation of the Mach 2 capable B-1A bomber. A key reason for this cost is the provision of air-conditioned hangars large enough for the bomber's 172 ft (52 m) wingspan, which are needed to maintain the aircraft's stealth properties, particularly its "low-observable" stealth skins. [22], During its design and development, the Northrop B-2 program was a "black" project requiring a secret clearance for all program personnel before its revelation to the public. 2 internal bays for ordnance and payload with an official limit of 40,000 lb (18,000 kg); maximum estimated limit is 50,000 lb (23,000 kg). [125] The B-2 was the first aircraft to deploy GPS satellite-guided JDAM "smart bombs" in combat use in Kosovo. ", "USAF Awards B-2 Radar Upgrade Production. ", "How Russia Could Someday Shootdown an F-22, F-35 or B-2 Stealth Bomber", "VI - STEALTH AIRCRAFT: EAGLES AMONG SPARROWS? Every seven years, this coating is carefully removed by being washed off with crystallised wheat starch so that the B-2's surfaces can be inspected for any dents or scratches. Ryan Pickrell. [9] Initially, Northrop and McDonnell Douglas were selected for further development. [140], On 28 March 2013, two B-2s flew a round trip of 13,000 miles (21,000 km) from Whiteman Air Force base in Missouri to South Korea, dropping dummy ordnance on the Jik Do target range. Northrop B-2 Stealth Bomber Contractor / Desk Model - Marked "NORTHROP C 1989" C $366.88. A total of 21 aircraft were produced and one was lost in an accident in 2009. An unbelievable image proves the shape of the B-2 stealth bomber was suggested by Mother Nature. B-2s have made periodic appearances on ground display at various air shows. Bombers are almost always designed with range in mind, but the unique design of the B-2 Spirit lends itself to extreme long range operations. [134][135], In March 2011, B-2s were the first U.S. aircraft into action in Operation Odyssey Dawn, the UN mandated enforcement of the Libyan no-fly zone. [38], The total "military construction" cost related to the program was projected to be US$553.6 million in 1997 dollars. [96], In addition to periodic software upgrades and the introduction of new radar-absorbent materials across the fleet, the B-2 has had several major upgrades to its avionics and combat systems. C $23.95. At the peak production period specified in 1989, the schedule called for spending US$7 billion to $8 billion per year in 1989 dollars, something Committee Chair Les Aspin (D-WI) said "won't fly financially". It also moved retirement of the B-1 to 2036 while extending the B-52's service life into the 2050s, due to the latter's lower maintenance costs, versatile conventional payload, and ability to carry nuclear cruise missiles (which the B-1 is treaty-prohibited from doing). The Northrop (later Northrop Grumman) B-2 Spirit, also known as the Stealth Bomber, is an American heavy strategic bomber, featuring low observable stealth technology designed for penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses.Designed during the Cold War, it is a flying wing design with a crew of two. Top Rated Seller Top Rated Seller. Originally designed as a platform for nuclear weapons capable of penetrating enemy air defenses, it has been used for combat missions since the bombing of Kosovo in 1999 – during which it dropped five guided bombs on the Chinese Embassy – and in consequent American air wars in Afghanistan, Iraq and Libya. [96] The B-2 lacks afterburners as the hot exhaust would increase the infrared signature; breaking the sound barrier would produce an obvious sonic boom as well as aerodynamic heating of the aircraft skin which would also increase the infrared signature. share: Ultron10. [139] There were also concerns an airstrike would make it difficult to positively identify Bin Laden's remains and so confirming his death would be difficult. ", "Air Force Reorganizes Nuclear Commands. For other uses, see. The Watermark *will not* appear on the artwork. Such features keep the aircraft more stealthy and keeps it ready for use. In 1996, the General Accounting Office (GAO) disclosed that the USAF's B-2 bombers "will be, by far, the most costly bombers to operate on a per aircraft basis", costing over three times as much as the B-1B (US$9.6 million annually) and over four times as much as the B-52H (US$6.8 million annually). Are there crew-rest areas on the B2?Does anyone know how a crew could have possibly sat … Program costs rose throughout development. [57] However, in March 2012, the Pentagon announced that a $2 billion, 10-year-long modernization of the B-2 fleet was to begin.
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