Take a virtual tour of the map center.. Humphrey's "Map of the Routes Examined and Surveyed for the Winchester and Potomac Rail Road, State of Virginia, Under the Direction of Capt. It was accompanied by an untitled outline map of North America which shows the route of his railroad from Prairie du Chien, Wis., across the Rocky Mountains north of South Pass. In … The southern routes were objectionable to northern politicians and the northern routes were objectionable to the southern politicians, but the surveys could not, of course, resolve these sectional issues. The vast amount of valuable data gathered by government exploring parties in the West contributed to more accurate commercially produced general maps as well as the specialized railroad and route guide maps. That same year, Rand McNally used the plates from the large map to produce its famous Commercial Atlas and Marketing Guide, which is now in its 105th edition. The inspiration for this atlas came from my own historical research. The remainder were produced by enlargement of the 1/2500 maps … the Railway Contemplated by John Leiper Esq. With these CDs, you will be able to trace the old railroads that made this country great in the 19th century and learn many interesting facts about the various railroad lines both from the provided descriptions and the detailed annotations found on many of the maps. The maps were devised to serve as memory aids for employees of the Railway Mail Service and the U.S. Post Office Department in quickly locating counties, routes, and post offices in the several states. A summary of the current status of major mergers is also included. The Library also holds a large amount of 18th and early 19th century mapping, especially for the Welsh cartographers who flourished at this time, but also for other cartographers producing maps of Wales. This map, like the first edition, lists 45 major surveys and mapping reports from the time of Lewis and Clark to the General Land Office Surveys of the late 1850's. 32 Rand McNally and Company, [Untitled booklet distributed to customers by the company, circa 1879]. "14 The Boston and Providence is the earliest line represented by a printed survey from a progress report in the Library's map collections. must necessarily be frequently repeated; and to aid the future compiler, I have prepared the accompanying memoir upon the different maps and books used, and upon the manner in which their discrepancies have been resolved." By the end of the century the same journey took about 24 hours by coach. Described under entry 174, the map is in President Millard Fillmore's collection and bears his signature and the date December 19, 1863. The building of the main railway system in France started after 1842 and … By the time the South Eastern Railway opened as far as Dover, in 1844, 2210 miles of line had been opened, making travel around the country faster, more comfortable and less expensive. These readily available cartographic reference tools contributed in large measure to the geographical knowledge of the country and assured their survival in map collections. The first American "tramroad" or "gravity road" was erected in 1764 for military purposes at the Niagara portage in Lewiston, N. Y., under the direction of Capt. A printed title cartouche accompanied by a list of counties for each of the states, by McEwen Map Company of Chicago, is pasted on the maps. [Note; "Entry" numbers refer to the list of Library of Congress maps that comprise most of this book, but which is not reproduced here.]) The maps shown are a tiny subset of all the European transportation maps produced in the 19th century. This annotated list reveals the scope of the railroad map collection and highlights the development of railroad mapping in 19th-century America. Others are limited to a specific railroad or show one survey line, often with adjacent connections. Maps like this one are useful in identifying the locations and names of railroads throughout the United States from the late 19th into the 21st century. By 1850, when the incentive to survey and map public works on a large scale was stimulated by the discovery of gold in California, the existing railroad network provided an excellent base for a productive decade of American railroad surveying and mapping.7, The Civil War provided another stimulus for railroad mapping, because of the strategic importance of rail transportation to the armies. It was not until 1848, however, that this company was organized to recover for the city of Alexandria some of the trade previously lost to Baltimore and Richmond. The firm was taken over by the Pendletons in 1830.16, The collections also include examples of original manuscript railroad maps, among which are several prepared by the Confederate engineer, Maj. Jedediah Hotchkiss. 4 Henry Varnum Poor, Manual of the Railroads of the United States for 1870-71 (New York: H.V. Add tags Comment Rate. Westward expansion and the growth of the United States during the 19th century sparked a need for a better transportation infrastructure. A major accomplishment of this firm was publication in 1876 of their "New Railroad and County Map of the United States and Canada. The first steam engine railway travel took place 209 years ago today. 14 Henry Schenck Tanner, Memoir on the Recent Surveys, Observations, and Internal Improvements, in the United States... (Philadelphia: Published by the Author, 1829), p. 19. This is reflected in the Library's large and comprehensive collection of American railroad maps, the majority of which were acquired through copyright deposits following the passage of the Copyright Law in 1870. Strengthened by other proposals, including those of Hartwell Carver in 1849 and of Edwin F. Johnson in 1853 (see entry 24), such leading statesmen as John C. Calhoun, Stephen A. Douglas, and Jefferson Davis declared their support for linking the country by rails. Railroads continued to expand through the rest of the century, as the national landscape continued to fill in. The transcontinental railroad in the latter half of the nineteenth century was typically built with substantial infusions of federal, state, and local government aid. firms of the period include Asher & Adams of New York, James T. Lloyd and Company of New York and London, Matthews-Northrup and Company and J. Sage and Sons of Buffalo, Gaylord Watson of New York and Chicago, and later in the century, the Chicago firms of Rand McNally and George F. Cram. He stated that "the work of compilation . A note on the map states: "The entire map is printed from electrotype plates, sections of which can be used for special railroad maps, publishers premium maps, maps to accompany reports, pamphlets . ), Another important printing process, cerography or wax engraving, was introduced in America by Sidney Edwards Morse, whose father Jedidiah Morse published in 1784 the first geography book in the United States, Geography Made Easy. What do the colours mean? (Compare entries 443 and 444.) "G. Woolworth Colton's Guide Map of the United States & Canada, with Railroads, Counties, etc." New York: G.W. After the war, railroad builders became aware of the traffic- generating potentials of the scenic wonders of the West. The Bailey Yard is the largest railroad classification yard in the world. Less than a year after their business was destroyed in the 1871 Chicago fire, the company's first two maps appeared in the December 1872 issue of the Guide. Graham, U.S. Top. The Library's holdings include railroad maps issued for a variety of purposes. (San Franscisco: The Institute of Historical Cartography, 1957-63),2:187. Excluded are photocopies, facsimiles, atlases, and maps which are included in annual railroad company reports or which illustrate volumes classed elsewhere in the Library of Congress. Railroad lines are marked in color with the operators to correspond with the list (railroad freight companies are noted next to name). The original has, seemingly, not survived. This firm was known the world over for the quality, quantity, and variety of its publications, including maps, atlases, and school geographies.12 Henry Varnum Poor, in the introduction to his History of the Railroads and Canals of the United States of America (1860), commends the series of Colton's railroad maps which illustrate his work. (See entry 335. Our United States and Canada Atlas is made from the same projection.32, This statement, however, does not seem applicable to the large and detailed map of 1876 which indicates drainage, relief by hachures, international, state and county boundaries, cities and towns, railroad stations, canals, roads, trails, a comprehensive railroad network, and railroads under construction. It embraces western Pennsylvania, western Maryland, parts of Virginia and West Virginia and most of Ohio and indicates several "preferred" and "'surveyed" lines to Wheeling and Pittsburgh as well as other possible northern and southern routes in the area. To fill requests for special-purpose maps, the new printing methods contributed greatly to the volume and variety of railroad maps. In 1835 Robert Stephenson, brother and partner of George Stephenson, drew one of the first English railroad survey maps for the "London and Birmingham Railway." This page shows the complete map. Capt. On the verso are timetables and ticket information and a small "Map of the Business District of Chicago" which locates railroad depots. Surveying and construction started on the Baltimore and Ohio in 1830, and 14 miles of track were opened before the year ended. (See entry 567.) Summary: Detailed general map of the eastern half of the United States framed in decorative borders indicating drainage, cities and towns, canals, roads, the railroad network, and indicating the proposed railroad routes to the Pacific Ocean. The collection includes rare 16th through 21st century maps of … Numerous maps of the United States and individual states and counties were made which clearly indicated the sections of the granted land and the railroad rights-of-way. Richard M. Simpson, III Uncategorized 10 November 2020 9 November 2020 1 Minute. ), Technological advances in papermaking and printing which permitted quick and inexpensive reproduction of maps also greatly benefited railroad cartography. (Topographic Quadrangle Maps—1:24,000, NE … Eng., 1831 and 1832," was based on surveys by Lts. (See entry 508.). At the end of the 19th century it had further cemented its power here by acquiring two additional properties, the New York & Northern and the New York, Buffalo & West Shore. Map of the canals and railroads for transporting anthracite coal from the several coal fields to the … Many railroad maps were among the cartographic items which constituted the Library's collection when a separate Map Division was formed in 1897. (See entry 619. 2 vols. Because steampowered railroads had stiff competition from canal companies, many partially completed lines were abandoned. Included also is a map of the principal railroad network and state maps which show and list the railroads serving each state. Through an electroplating process, a relief mold was produced from which single sheet maps were printed. (See entry 147a.) Other reputable map publishing. 23 Louis H. Haney, A Congressional History of Railways, 2 vols. Not intended for planning travel or navigation. The list does reflect, however, the important achievements of early railroaders in reaching their ultimate goal of providing a transportation network spanning the country and linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 24Memorial of Asa Whitney ... Praying a Grant of Land, to Enable Him to Construct a Railroad from Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean (28th Congress, 2d sess., Senate Doc. (See entry 348.) French and J.F. William Howard, C.E., Stephen Harrison Long, Jonathan Knight, William Gibbs McNeill, Joshua Barney, Isaac R. Trimble were the surveyors. The use of rails for heavily loaded, wheeled vehicles to reduce friction was introduced in England as early as the 17th century. No other railroad dominated the New York City region like the Central. Contains 623 maps chosen from more than 3,000 railroad maps and about 2,000 regional, state, and county maps, and other maps which show "internal improvements" of the past century. The map was published to accompany the "Documents concerning Winchester and Potomac Railroad," 24th Congress, 2d Session, House Document 465. The surveys were made under the direction of Lt. Col. Stephen H. Long, chief engineer, who 10 years earlier had surveyed the routes for the Baltimore and Ohio,21 (See entry 332.) Color to accentuate the many lines of intricate railroad networks, however, continued to be manually applied to many maps at the end of the century, including Rand McNally's elephant-sized maps of the 1890's, which are discussed in detail at the end of this essay. Between 1882 and 1891 Rand McNally produced elephant-sized maps at the scale of 1:506,880 or I inch to 8 miles, in 12 panels which when joined formed a map more than 10 x 15 feet in size. Part of the appropriation under this act for the succeeding year, however, was used for "Examinations and surveys to ascertain the practicability of uniting the headwaters of the Kanawha with the James river and the Roanoke river, by Canals or Rail-Roads. Numerous additional titles at the University of Chicago Library--and in other North American libraries--can be found by searching with Library of Congress subject headings. During the first half of the 20 th century, the railroad industry was booming. 18th and Early 19th Century Mapping of Wales. and C.B. To satisfy Americans' keen interest in the routes of railroads, cartographers have shown rail lines on maps since the first tracks were laid in the United States. Maps became readily available to the public in quantity and at low prices mainly because of the great advances in 19th-century printing techniques. (See entry 307.) In January 1845 he petitioned Congress for a charter and a grant of a 60-mile strip through the public domain to help finance construction.24 Whitney suggested the use of Irish and German immigrant labor which was at the time in great abundance. Proposed lines also extended from St. Louis to San Francisco and from Independence, Mo. There are specific 19th century volumes for the DL&W (Taber), the Reading (Holton), Central Vermont (Jones). The following year the Mauch Chunk "gravity road," used for transporting anthracite coal, was constructed in Pennsylvania.4, John Stevens, who shares credit with Fulton for inventing the steamboat, is considered to be the father of American railroads. Just as the earliest railroad surveys in the East in the 1830's influenced mapping activities, the great amount of data derived from the Pacific surveys similarly stimulated cartographic activities. . The surveys contributed greatly, however, to the geographical knowledge of the American West and provided source materials for making detailed railroad and general maps. Township and railroad map of Minnesota published for the ... Williams' commercial map of the United States and Canada with ... A correct map of the United States showing the Union Pacific, ... A map of the Virginia Central Railroad, west of the Blue Ridge, ... General map of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road & its ... Map showing the Port Royal Railroad and its connections. Note: The maps use Javascript and may ask for ActiveX to be enabled. Until 1831, when a locomotive of American manufacture was placed in service, the B & O relied upon horsepower. Mex., to the Red River. The railroads sold the land to settlers for cash. General railroad maps, depicting the continental United States - and using the basic style developed in the previous century, continued to be popular until the beginning of World War II. This line conclusively demonstrated the feasibility of transporting agricultural products and other commodities by rail for long distances at low cost. Railroad - Railroad - Railroad history: The earliest railroads reinforced transportation patterns that had developed centuries before. Discovery of gold, the expanding frontier, and success of the eastern railroads increased interest in building a railroad to the Pacific.26 Railroads were also needed in the West to provide better postal service, as had been developed in the East in 1838 by designating railroad lines "post roads." ), Following the consolidation and rapid growth of American railroads after the panic of 1873, many commercial maps were produced to show the spreading network. The expansion of the transcontinental railroad in the 19th century was followed by the development of an Interstate Highway System in the 20th century, as motorized vehicles became more and more popular. For more detailed information on tags and tagging railroads, see WikiProject_United_States_railways, OpenRailwayMap/Tagging, OpenRailwayMap/Tagging in North America, and Tag:railway=signal. Philadelphia served as one of the nation's many capitals during the Revolutionary War, and the city served as the temporary national capital from 1790 to 1800 while Washington, D.C. was under construction. 27 x 61 cm., was prepared to accompany the report. The list includes only separate printed and manuscript maps preserved in the Geography and Map Division. 21Report of the Engineers, on the Reconnoissance and surveys, made in reference to the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road (Baltimore: Printed by W. Wooddy, 1828). The "Map of Franklin County, Arkansas; Showing the Land Grant of the Little Rock & Fort Smith Railway," published in 1893, shows how much land was still owned by one railroad in one county some 20 years after the era of land grants. ), Publication of 19th-century American railroad maps paralleled similar developments in Europe. (See entry 5. Scarce George Cram Railroad large late 19th century double page continuous seam "tipped-in" map of Iowa. In John W. Amerman's book entitled The Illinois Central Rail-Road Company Offers for Sale Over 2,000,000 Acres Selected Farming and Wood Land (New York, 1856) appears an "Outline Map of Illinois" which emphasizes the Illinois Central Railroad by a heavy black line, with stations interspersed evenly along the line to give the illusion of proximity of populated places along the line. 19th century French railway map for area around Paris - stock photo London, England - November 29, 2011: A damaged 19th century French railway map for the area around Paris, the capital of France. 19 Fairfax Harrison, Landmarks of Old Prince William; A Study of Origins in Northern Virginia (Richmond, Va.: Old Dominion Press, 1924). Pictorial representations, in caricature, which suggest post office names illustrate the maps. Another example of a distorted map is Josiah Hunt's advertising map of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railway published in 1863 (see entry 425), which emphasized its line by a symmetrical strip and heavy black line between Hannibal and St. Joseph, Mo. In the 1824 General Survey Bill to establish works of internal improvements, railroads were not specifically mentioned. 1 John F. Stover, American Railroads (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961), p. 1. The ill-fated party under Capt. Where natural interconnection among navigable rivers was lacking, gaps in trade were likely to develop, most notably at watersheds. The first railroad charter in the United States was granted to Stevens in 1815.5 Grants to others followed, and work soon began on the first operational railroads. With Robert Fulton's steamboat, the Clermont, and a boat built by John Stevens, the use of steam power for vessels became firmly established. (See entries 1, 348, and 610.) It was not until the Boston and Lowell Railroad diverted traffic from the Middlesex Canal that the success of the new mode of transportation was assured. The maps presented here are a selection from the Geography and Map Division holdings, based on the popular cartobibliography, Railroad Maps of the United States: A Selective Annotated Bibliography of Original 19th-century Maps in the Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress, compiled by Andrew M. Modelski (Washington: Library of Congress, 1975). Other maps were published specifically to promote particular lines, some of which were never built. Matthews-Northrup and Company also utilized this method for printing their numerous railroad maps. Included in the collection are progress report surveys for individual lines, official government surveys, promotional maps, maps showing land grants and rights-of-way, and route guides published by commercial firms. The importance of rail transportation to the history of Europe cannot be understated; the implementation of railroads throughout Europe brought about huge changes to Europe as a continent and continues to play an important role in Europe to this day. This map and the 1871 map of Middlesex County shows the original Boston and Lowell Railroad route through Billerica, Wilmington, Woburn, Winchester, and Medford. This idea, derived from the government land-grant maps, may have been perpetuated by the mapping of the Illinois Central Railroad after it was granted land along its path in 1850. . Amiel W. Whipple, assistant astronomer of the Mexican Boundary Survey, and Lt. Joseph Christmas Ives surveyed the routes of the 35th parallel, westward to southern California. Stanford University history Professor James Campbell presented a talk titled,"The Celestial Railroad Revisited: The Railroad in 19th Century American History and Culture." 11 David Woodward, "Cerotyping and Cartography," (Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Geography 625, University of Wisconsin, Madison, January 1966.). 19th Century Railroads, Behind the Book, Maps, Settings 21 Comments When I start researching a new project, or even when I’m in the middle of one and just need some quick directions, there is nothing quite so practical as a good, historic map. Located on the map are routes of the Columbia Railroad in Pennsylvania and the B & O in Maryland. In the borders of the map are picturesque scenes of the country traversed by the railroad, as well as a list of railroad stations in the Middle West. The building of the main railway system in France started after 1842 and was rather inefficient for several decades. 2Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 4 (1880): 422, and 11 (1887):243. ; date from end of article. Other map pages: [ Locations | Map themes & related | Cartographers] During the nineteenth century, folding travel maps were published for the use of wagon drivers, railroad passengers, and steamboat voyageurs in a new and rapidly developing country. RailMapOnline.com provides interactive maps of past & present railways. The prospect of tapping the wealth of the Nevada mining towns and forthcoming legislation for federal aid to railroads stimulated them to incorporate the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California. 35 Rand McNally and Company, [Untitled booklet distributed to customers by the company, circa 1879]. to the Pacific coast, a distance of about 2,000 miles. Color lithography to distinguish regions and administrative divisions on maps was introduced as early as the 1850's. Within the next 20 years railroads were playing a dominant role in the transportation system of the country. By 1868 Rand and McNally had formed a partnership which soon acquired a reputation as specialists in railroad printing. The second half of the 19th century was the era of railroad land grants. 15 (1928):879. To link to this object, paste this link in email, IM or document ... 19th Century American Sheet Music: A: Alfonso Elder Papers, 1927-1993: Archie Green Papers: B: The total grant amounted to some 42 million acres for a line from Springfield, Mo. Probably more original map projections have been made in our map drawing room than have ever been produced in the United States. When the results of the surveys were analyzed it was apparent that additional data on the roadbeds, grades, and passes were needed for the 32d parallel route to California. The line could not generate sufficient levels of passengers and freight to survive by itself. Large sheet 25" x 17 1/2" with a map inside the border of 22 1/8" x … No other railroad dominated the New York City region like the Central. I realise that can result in a very busy map, but unfortunately I didn’t think of that when I started! Most are Town Plans which were surveyed at either five or ten foot to one mile scale between 1837 and 1896. John Pope mapped the eastern portion of the route from Dona Ana, N. Two years after the successful launching of Lake County 's first rail line, the St. Johns and Lake Eustis Railroad Co. in 1879, a group of entrepreneurs thought … Railroad Tycoons Of The 19th Century Railroad tycoons were the early industrial pioneers amassing or overseeing construction of many large railroads through the early 20th century. ... By the end of the 19th century, it was 75 per cent. For the little Santa Cruz Railroad itself - as for many smaller railroads built in the late 19th century - its story was briefer. The map, dated January 1828, shows proposed lines of a survey two and a half years before the railroad was chartered in June 1831.15, It illustrated the Massachusetts Board of Commissioners of Internal Improvements' Report in Relation to the Examination of Sundry Routes for a Railway from Boston to Providence; with a Memoir of the Survey (Boston, Dutton & Wentworth, printers to the state, 1828). The Columbia Railroad of Pennsylvania, completed in 1834, and the Boston and Providence, completed in June 1835, were other early lines. The use of "zincography" in America as early as 1849 is credited to P.S. In 1860 he approached Leland Stanford, Collis P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins, and Charles Crocker, leading Sacramento merchants, and soon convinced them that building a transcontinental line would make them rich and famous. Railroad maps of the United States : a selective annotated bibliography of original 19th-century maps in the Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress by Library of Congress. Soon after James Watt developed the steam engine, the invention was adapted by John Fitch in 1787 to propel a ship on the Delaware and in the same year by James Rumsey on the Potomac River. (See entry 378.) Railroads played a significant role in the overall development of Colorado. The maps selected represent a profile of the development of cartographic style and technique and are not intended to inventory all maps in the division which show railroads. in New Mexico," published in 1883. 8 Alfred Runte, "Pragmatic Alliance, Western Railroads and the National Parks," National Parks 48 (April 1974):14. Compiled from Latest Government Surveys, and Drawn to an Accurate Scale." I (June 1972):37-40. The maps recorded the progress of the surveys in the public domain and usually indicated major drainage, relief by hachures, township and range lines, roads, railroads, and major cities and towns. To remedy this situation money was appropriated in 1853 for the Army Topographical Corps "to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.". 12 George Woolworth Colton, A Genealogical Record of the Descendants of Quartermaster George Colton (Philadephia: Printed for private circulation by John Milton Colton, 1912), p. 273. (See entries 137-143.) Click on the links below to access scans of some of the late 19th- and early 20th-century urban rail transit maps that are held at the University of Chicago Library's Map Collection. This practice of manipulating scale, area, and paths of railroads became common practice in advertising maps of the 1870's and early 1880's (see entry 378) and in railroad timetables. A beautifully executed commercial guide map which drew upon the Pacific railroad surveys is entitled "Map of the United States West of the Mississippi Showing the Routes to Pike's Peak, Overland Mail Route to California and Pacific Rail Road Surveys." British railroads were first shown on a map in Philippe Vandermaelen's Atlas de L'Europe, published in Brussels in two volumes between 1829 and 1833. Within two years after William and John Pendleton established the first important lithographic printing house in Boston in 1825, their firm was printing railroad surveys and reports for the earliest New England railroad companies.9, Even after lithographic printing in map production became common, engraving continued in use for many years for finer and more limited works. This aid took two forms: loans and land grants. He gratefully acknowledged the work of Edward Freyhold in "the beautiful execution of the topography upon the map . (See entries 399 and 400. John W. Gunnison was to explore the route along the 38th and 39th parallels, or the Cochetopa Pass route, advocated by Senator Benton. (See entry 332. Lt. Joshua Barney's "Map of the Country Embracing the Various Routes Surveyed for the Balt. A reproduction, entitled "Draft Exhibiting. Colton of New York, used copper plates through the 1860's and 1870's. Interest was revived, however, with completion of the Western Railroad in Massachusetts in 1843. The maps were not published but were rented, on a fee basis, to practicing or prospective postal workers. Be an exception: - ) these separately issued maps were published specifically to his! Large map incorporating the Pacific railroad surveys pass joined the main line the! Collection for any 19th century double page continuous seam `` 19th century railroad map '' map of Montana| 19th century railroad... Interconnection among navigable rivers was lacking, gaps in trade were likely to develop, most notably watersheds... Their numerous railroad maps and show the entire country or large portions of and! Maps shown are a tiny subset of all the commercial mapping ventures Chicago Press, )... When looking at the Salmon River and continued to fill requests for maps! Of Boston, established a printing office in Chicago, Illinois did Rail... Of Colorado comprising site centred historical maps covering England, Wales and.. The operators to correspond with the list includes only separate printed and Manuscript maps 1796-1850! Colour identifies the Company, circa 1879 ] Freyhold, was Prepared to accompany the report revolutionized! Was formed in 1897 the 32d parallel route was the era of railroad building the Board of Engineers ''! Which single sheet maps were sold to a copper plate, lines and symbols, exploitation! The rich agricultural production of the ORER ( Official railway Equipment Register ) became aware of century... Manual of the network was completed to Culpeper by 1852 and to Gordonsville 1854. 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